Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Customers may call 311 or 703-746-4311 to request in-person information or service. [93][77] If they did survive the attack, then whatever was left of them would have been destroyed during the emperor Diocletian's siege of Alexandria in 297. Mar 20, 2019 - Explore MicElle 's board "Hypatia", followed by 2886 people on Pinterest. [40] The Library itself was directed by a scholar who served as head librarian, as well as tutor to the king's son. [12][3] A long tradition of libraries existed in both Greece and in the ancient Near East. This shift paralleled a similar, concurrent trend in philosophy, in which many philosophers were beginning to synthesize the views of earlier philosophers rather than coming up with original ideas of their own. The great library at Alexandria in Egypt was founded by the Ptolemy dynasty around 290 BC, in a palace district known as the Brucheion. Those irregular methods of collection were supplemented by the purchase of books from different places, especially from Athens and Rhodes, which sustained the largest book markets of the time. As the same text often existed in several different versions, comparative textual criticism was crucial for ensuring their veracity. [26][a] Its main purpose was to show off the wealth of Egypt, with research as a lesser goal,[22] but its contents were used to aid the ruler of Egypt. Glyn Moody - Jun 30, 2016 11:47 am UTC [42] The fifth head librarian was an obscure individual named Apollonius, who is known by the epithet Greek: ὁ εἰδογράφος ("the classifier of forms"). [74][79][b] Other scholars branched out and began writing commentaries on the poetic works of postclassical authors, including Alexandrian poets such as Callimachus and Apollonius of Rhodes. During the reign of Ptolemy III Euergetes, a daughter library was established in the Serapeum, a temple to the Greco-Egyptian god Serapis. [68] He wrote introductions to many plays, some of which have survived in partially rewritten forms. The last recorded Director of the Great Library was a scholar and mathematician Theon (c. 335 – c. 405 CE), father of the female philosopher Hypatia, brutally murdered by a Christian mob in Alexandria in 415 CE. 20091 of 2013, Bab Sharq Felonies, known in the media as the “Events of the Library of Alexandria” case, in which the death penalty was imposed in the presence of Yasser Al-Abasiri Abdel-Naim and Yasser Abdel-Samad Mohamed Abdel-Fattah. Once our species’ greatest trove of knowledge was the Library of Alexandria. [135] Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak took a personal interest in the project, which greatly contributed to its advancement. Facing the sea on the north, and Alexandria University Complex on its southern side. The idea of a universal library, like that of Alexandria, arose only after the Greek mind had begun to envisage and encompass a larger worldview. Despite the widespread modern belief that the Library of Alexandria was burned once and cataclysmically destroyed, the Library actually declined gradually over the course of several centuries. The Library, or part of its collection, was accidentally burned by Julius Caesar during his civil war in 48 BC, but it is unclear how much was actually destroyed and it seems to have either survived or been rebuilt shortly thereafter; the geographer Strabo mentions having visited the Mouseion in around 20 BC and the prodigious scholarly output of Didymus Chalcenterus in Alexandria from this period indicates that he had access to at least some of the Library's resources. This library is a wikimedia style forum meant for the fans as a repository of historical information of New Alexandria and the great characters that have populated it. The library of Alexandria may have been famous in the ancient but today's world has another great treasury of knowledge known as the Bibliotheca Alexandrina. [78], Further evidence for the Library's survival after 48 BC comes from the fact that the most notable producer of composite commentaries during the late first century BC and early first century AD was a scholar who worked in Alexandria named Didymus Chalcenterus, whose epithet Χαλκέντερος (Chalkénteros) means "bronze guts". [87][84] Didymus is said to have produced somewhere between 3,500 and 4,000 books, making him the most prolific known writer in all of antiquity. His successor as Pharaoh, Ptolemy I Soter, founded the Museum (also called Museum of Alexandria, Greek Mouseion, “Seat of the Muses”) or Royal Library of Alexandria in 283 BC. [84][78][8][86] The geographer Strabo (c. 63 BC–c. The Library of Alexandria was destroyed/heavily damaged at least four times. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [90] After Alexandria came under Roman rule, the city's status and, consequently that of its famous Library, gradually diminished. [37], The Library of Alexandria was one of the largest and most prestigious libraries of the ancient world, but it was far from the only one. [15] The most famous library of the ancient Near East was the Library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh, founded in the seventh century BC by the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (ruled 668–c. The earliest known reference detailing the foundation of the Great Library of Alexandria comes from the pseudepigraphic Letter of Aristeas, composed between 180 and 145 BC. The Library of Alexandria (-295 to +646) was the largest library of ancient times.It stood for almost a thousand years. [42][69] One late lexicographical source explains this epithet as referring to the classification of poetry on the basis of musical forms. As a reference library, Alexandria was reportedly unparalleled. [119][120] Rumors spread accusing her of preventing Orestes from reconciling with Cyril[119][121] and, in March of 415 AD, she was murdered by a mob of Christians, led by a lector named Peter. The library: An illustrated history. King Eumenes II of Pergamum (197-159 BCE), a rival kingdom, competed to accumulate a collection of 200,000 texts, but Alexandria dwarfed his library. [115] In around 400 AD, Theon's daughter Hypatia (born c. 350–370; died 415 AD) succeeded him as the head of his school. Books acquired in that manner were designated “from the ships.”. [49] It is more likely that Apollonius's resignation was on account of Ptolemy III Euergetes's ascension to the throne in 246 BC. [90] The Romans during this period also had less interest in Alexandrian scholarship, causing the Library's reputation to continue to decline as well. [134] Starting in 1988, UNESCO and the UNDP worked to support the international architectural competition to design the Library. The Library of Alexandria in fact was indirectly causal in the creation of writing on parchment, as the Egyptians refused to export papyrus to their competitor in the Library of Pergamum. This library was both royal, because the books belonged to the king, and public, because, along with the Pergamon library, it was one of the first to open its doors to the literate public. However, institutions which assume mythological proportions are often obscured by the very legends they generate. Gatherer is the Magic Card Database. [87][88] Parts of some of Didymus's commentaries have been preserved in the forms of later extracts and these remains are modern scholars' most important sources of information about the critical works of the earlier scholars at the Library of Alexandria. [93][77][3] If the Mouseion and Library still existed at this time, they were almost certainly destroyed during the attack as well. [44] Each section listed authors in alphabetical order. [105] In the 370s and 380s, the Serapeum was still a major pilgrimage site for many pagans. The Library was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world, but details about it are a mixture of history and legend. 25 BC), a student of Dionysius Thrax. The earliest known surviving source of information on the founding of the Library of Alexandria is the pseudepigraphic Letter of Aristeas, which was composed between c. 180 and c. 145 BC. By Ismaeel Nakhuda. The same claim was reiterated more than once: Irenaeus spoke of Ptolemy’s desire to equip “his library with the writings of all men as far as they were worth serious attention.” Undoubtedly, however, the largest amount of material was written in Greek. Von Corven, based partially on the archaeological evidence available at that time, Later schools and libraries in Alexandria. [93] The last known references to scholars being members of the Mouseion date to the 260s. The library in Alexandria was home to the vast number of books belonging to the Museum. A place of understanding of people around the world. [39], The Library of Alexandria was not affiliated with any particular philosophical school and, consequently, scholars who studied there had considerable academic freedom. [17] The earliest known surviving source of information on the founding of the Library of Alexandria is the pseudepigraphic Letter of Aristeas, which was composed between c. 180 and c. 145 BC. [42][71] In 145 BC, however, Aristarchus became caught up in a dynastic struggle in which he supported Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator as the ruler of Egypt. Alexandria - Reddit.torrent. [57], According to Galen, around this time, Ptolemy III requested permission from the Athenians to borrow the original manuscripts of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, for which the Athenians demanded the enormous amount of fifteen talents (1,000 lb, 450 kg) of a precious metal as guarantee that he would return them. [90] The scholars who worked and studied at the Library of Alexandria during the time of the Roman Empire were less well known than the ones who had studied there during the Ptolemaic Period. Library of Science) Biology [online serial] 4(11):2138–2152. [4] These rulers, therefore, had a vested interest to collect and compile information from both the Greeks and from the far more ancient kingdoms of the Near East. [46] Apollonius of Rhodes is best known as the author of the Argonautica, an epic poem about the voyages of Jason and the Argonauts, which has survived to the present in its complete form. However, its architecture is brilliant, bold, modern and wonderfully executed. For the red crabs. However, its architecture is … [2] In around 295 BC or thereabouts, Demetrius may have acquired early texts of the writings of Aristotle and Theophrastus, which he would have been uniquely positioned to do, since he was a distinguished member of the Peripatetic school. [93] Archaeologists have identified lecture halls dating to around this time period, located near, but not on, the site of the Ptolemaic Mouseion, which may be the "Mouseion" to which these writers refer. [61][63] On account of his impressive memory and diligence, Ptolemy III appointed him as head librarian. magent link: https://pastebin.com/P0h0LAfs [132] Among the largest and most prominent of these libraries were the Theological Library of Caesarea Maritima, the Library of Jerusalem, and a Christian library in Alexandria. [9] They were, however, subject to the authority of the king. This torrent has no flags. There is literary evidence of Greek individuals visiting Egypt especially to acquire knowledge: e.g., Herodotus, Plato (particularly in Phaedrus and Timaeus), Theophrastus, and Eudoxus of Cnidus (as detailed by Diogenes Laërtius in the 3rd century ce). New York: Skyhorse Publishing, p.17. What the Great Library Was. Its empirical standards were applied in one of the first and certainly strongest homes for serious textual criticism. [87][79] He was also given the nickname βιβλιολάθης (Biblioláthēs), meaning "book-forgetter" because it was said that even he could not remember all the books he had written. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Library-of-Alexandria, The Ohio State University - ehistory - The Burning of the Library of Alexandria. Salt and pepper shaker. [114] Theon's school was exclusive, highly prestigious, and doctrinally conservative. [4][19] Eventually, for these reasons, every major Hellenistic urban center would have a royal library. [32] Older copies of texts were favored over newer ones, since it was assumed that older copies had undergone less copying and that they were therefore more likely to more closely resemble what the original author had written. [102], Scattered references indicate that, sometime in the fourth century, an institution known as the "Mouseion" may have been reestablished at a different location somewhere in Alexandria. "Mouseion" means "House of Muses", whence the term "museum". [72][42] Ptolemy VIII expelled all foreign scholars from Alexandria, forcing them to disperse across the Eastern Mediterranean. The king thereupon kept the originals and sent back copies, willingly forfeiting the pledge. [132] Nonetheless, the study of pagan authors remained secondary to the study of the Christian scriptures until the Renaissance. His soldiers set fire to some of the Egyptian ships docked in the Alexandrian port while trying to clear the wharves to block the fleet belonging to Cleopatra's brother Ptolemy XIV. Alexandria was hardly the only library in the world, and the libraries at Pergamum and later Rome herself rivaled Alexandria in scale. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [134] Egypt devoted four hectares of land for the building of the Library and established the National High Commission for the Library of Alexandria. [42][43] Most of what is known about him comes from later commentaries that mention his preferred readings of particular passages. The ancient library had about 490,000 scrolls.That comes to about 100,000 of our books or, on a computer, 64 gigabytes. 48 BC: Julius Caesar accidentally burns the library when he sets fire to his ships and the fire spreads from the docks. Pococke, p. 181, translation on p. 114. [9] Ptolemy II is said to have jailed him and, after he escaped, sealed him in a lead jar and dropped him into the sea. [106], In addition to possessing the largest library in Alexandria, the Serapeum remained a fully functioning temple and it even had classrooms for philosophers to teach in. [34][3][35][8][19] The original texts were kept in the library, and the copies delivered to the owners. You see, apart from being a nice piece of art, the set also doubles as a salt and pepper shaker. [23] Other sources claim that the Library was instead created under the reign of Ptolemy I's son Ptolemy II Philadelphus (283–246 BC). [70] Ptolemaic rulers also began to emphasize the Egyptian aspect of their nation over the Greek aspect. Citizens of New Alexandria, We are pleased to announce the establishment of the “New Alexandria Public Library of Records”. [77] Confronted with growing social unrest and other major political and economic problems, the later Ptolemies did not devote as much attention towards the Library and the Mouseion as their predecessors had. [55][56] Bacchius of Tanagra, a contemporary of Eratosthenes, edited and commented on the medical writings of the Hippocratic Corpus. [92], By the second century AD, the Roman Empire grew less dependent on grain from Alexandria and the city's prominence declined further. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? [73] Aristarchus's student Dionysius Thrax (c. 170–c. The Court of Cassation had rejected the cassation appeal against the death sentence issued by the Alexandria Criminal Court in Case No. An English translation of the passage in Al-Qifti by Emily Cottrell of Leiden University is at the Roger Pearse blog here, Ed. This decline began with the purging of intellectuals from Alexandria in 145 BC during the reign of Ptolemy VIII Physcon, which resulted in Aristarchus of Samothrace, the head librarian, resigning from his position and exiling himself to Cyprus. [29] A hall contained shelves for the collections of papyrus scrolls known as bibliothekai (βιβλιοθῆκαι). [45] Although Callimachus did his most famous work at the Library of Alexandria, he never held the position of head librarian there. Alexandria Library , The modern Alexandria Library or the Bibliotheca Alexandrina as once called in Ancient Egypt is located on a magnificent site in the Eastern Harbor. [14][3] A large library also existed in Babylon during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II (c. 605–c. The library of Alexandria may have been famous in the ancient but today's world has another great treasury of knowledge known as the Bibliotheca Alexandrina. ), Actes du IIe symposium syro-arabicum (Sayyidat al-Bīr, septembre 1998). 212 BC) came to visit the Library of Alexandria. [55] However, it was also during the early second century BC that the political power of Ptolemaic Egypt began to decline. The daughter library of the Serapeum may have survived after the main Library's destruction. [132], In late antiquity, as the Roman Empire became Christianized, Christian libraries modeled directly on the Library of Alexandria and other great libraries of earlier pagan times began to be founded all across the Greek-speaking eastern part of the empire. Several later Arabic sources describe the library's destruction by the order of Caliph Omar. [93], In 272 AD, the emperor Aurelian fought to recapture the city of Alexandria from the forces of the Palmyrene queen Zenobia. The precious texts were safeguarded in the Athenian state archives and were not allowed to be lent out. Our tour continues to the Alexandria National Museum. "[30], The Ptolemaic rulers intended the Library to be a collection of all knowledge[28] and they worked to expand the Library's collections through an aggressive and well-funded policy of book purchasing. [61][63] Aristophanes declared that all of the poets except for the one he had chosen had committed plagiarism and were therefore disqualified. [4][20] The Library of Alexandria, however, was unprecedented due to the scope and scale of the Ptolemies' ambitions;[4][21] unlike their predecessors and contemporaries, the Ptolemies wanted to produce a repository of all knowledge. [124][125] British Egyptologist Charlotte Booth notes that many new academic lecture halls were built in Alexandria at Kom el-Dikka shortly after Hypatia's death, indicating that philosophy was clearly still taught in Alexandrian schools. Watts. 110 BC), went to Alexandria's greatest rival, Pergamum, where he taught and conducted research. [78] The emperor Claudius (ruled 41–54 AD) is recorded to have built an addition onto the Library,[89] but it seems that the Library of Alexandria's general fortunes followed those of the city of Alexandria itself. 215 BC), a native of Alexandria and a student of Callimachus, as the second head librarian of the Library of Alexandria. [4][5], The Library was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world, but details about it are a mixture of history and legend. The in-game loading screen for the Library The Library of Alexandria is a social hub visited between games where players can group up, Customize their character and classes, use training dummies, or interact with each other using emotes. [39] There were also numerous classrooms, where the scholars were expected to at least occasionally teach students. Ptolemy soon took advantage of Demetrius’s wide and versatile knowledge and, about 295 bce, charged him with the task of founding the library and the Mouseion. [34][9][8][19] The Library particularly focused on acquiring manuscripts of the Homeric poems, which were the foundation of Greek education and revered above all other poems. [45] Each entry included the author's name, father's name, place of birth, and other brief biographical information, sometimes including nicknames by which that author was known, followed by a complete list of all that author's known works. [41][50][47] Eratosthenes's most important work was his treatise Geographika, which was originally in three volumes. Gatherer is the Magic Card Database. Updates? "[51] Meanwhile, other scholars at the Library of Alexandria also displayed interest in scientific subjects. [108] The pagans of Alexandria were incensed by this act of desecration, especially the teachers of Neoplatonic philosophy and theurgy at the Serapeum. The old library of Alexandria was not just a library, it was a cultural learning centre for the arts and philosophy. [47] During his time in Egypt, Archimedes is said to have observed the rise and fall of the Nile, leading him to invent the Archimedes' screw, which can be used to transport water from low-lying bodies into irrigation ditches. After his fall from power in Athens, Demetrius sought refuge at the court of King Ptolemy I Soter (c. 297 bce) and became the king’s adviser. By this art you may contemplate the variation of the 23 letters. ", "3. Library of Alexandria, the most famous library of Classical antiquity. The enormous sum of 15 talents of silver was deposited in Athens as a pledge for their safe restitution. Today, it has an extensive collection of artifacts that tell the story of Alexandria. [10] The idea of a universal library in Alexandria may have been proposed by Demetrius of Phalerum, an exiled Athenian statesman living in Alexandria, to Ptolemy I Soter, who may have established plans for the Library, but the Library itself was probably not built until the reign of his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus. [48][47] The Argonautica displays Apollonius's vast knowledge of history and literature and makes allusions to a vast array of events and texts, while simultaneously imitating the style of the Homeric poems. Serves: City of Alexandria. Libraries and archives were known to many ancient civilizations in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Syria, Asia Minor, and Greece, but the earliest such institutions were of a local and regional nature, primarily concerned with the conservation of their own particular traditions and heritage. [55] A scholar named Ptolemy Epithetes wrote a treatise on wounds in the Homeric poems, a subject straddling the line between traditional philology and medicine. According to Athenaeus, Philadelphus purchased that collection for a large sum of money, whereas Strabo reported that Aristotle’s books passed on in succession through different hands, until they were later confiscated in 86 bce by Sulla, who carried them away to Rome. One of the major acquisitions for the library was the “books of Aristotle,” concerning which there are two conflicting accounts. ... Alexandria Bondra; ... A library of TIS from reference ignitable liquids with assigned ASTM classification is used as the target factors in TFA. [55] The doctors Herophilus (lived c. 335–c. [70] After the Battle of Raphia in 217 BC, Ptolemaic power became increasingly unstable. Reddit Source: Reddit 6. [66] He also invented the system of Greek diacritics,[67][57] wrote important works on lexicography,[42] and introduced a series of signs for textual criticism. [45] The entries for prolific authors such as Aeschylus, Euripides, Sophocles, and Theophrastus must have been extremely long, spanning multiple columns of text. [61][63] The king demanded that he prove this, so he retrieved the texts that the authors had plagiarized from the Library, locating them by memory. [114] According to classical historian Edward J. Watts, however, Theon was probably the head of a school called the "Mouseion", which was named in emulation of the Hellenistic Mouseion that had once included the Library of Alexandria, but which had little other connection to it. [42][70], Aristarchus of Samothrace (lived c. 216–c. [43] Zenodotus's system of alphabetization, however, only used the first letter of the word[43] and it was not until the second century AD that anyone is known to have applied the same method of alphabetization to the remaining letters of the word. [61] According to a legend recorded by the Roman writer Vitruvius, Aristophanes was one of seven judges appointed for a poetry competition hosted by Ptolemy III Euergetes. Papyrus scrolls constituted the collection, and although codices were used after 300 BC, the Alexandrian Library is never documented as having switched to parchment, perhaps because of its strong links to the papyrus trade. Search for the perfect addition to your deck. [87] Lionel Casson states that Didymus's prodigious output "would have been impossible without at least a good part of the resources of the library at his disposal. ALL ALEXANDRIA LIBRARIES WILL BE CLOSED ON FRIDAY, JANUARY 1, 2021. [39][41][42][43], The first recorded head librarian was Zenodotus of Ephesus (lived c. 325–c. [72] Ptolemy VII was murdered and succeeded by Ptolemy VIII Physcon, who immediately set about punishing all those who had supported his predecessor, forcing Aristarchus to flee Egypt and take refuge on the island of Cyprus, where he died shortly thereafter. In 2002 a new Library of Alexandria was opened. [47] Archimedes later returned to Syracuse, where he continued making new inventions. [74][75] Dionysius Thrax wrote the first book on Greek grammar, a succinct guide to speaking and writing clearly and effectively. Learn More >> ALEXANDRIA LAW LIBRARY WILL BE CLOSED ON THURSDAY, DECEMBER 31. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Estimates for the collection size of the Great Library of the Ptolemies vary enormously, from 40,000 scrolls to 1,000,000 texts. He required his companions, generals, and scholars to report to him in detail on regions previously unmapped and uncharted. [132] By the fourth century AD, there were at least two dozen public libraries in the city of Rome itself alone. [47], According to two late and largely unreliable biographies, Apollonius was forced to resign from his position as head librarian and moved to the island of Rhodes (after which he takes his name) on account of the hostile reception he received in Alexandria to the first draft of his Argonautica. [109] However, none of the accounts of the Serapeum's destruction mention anything about it having a library and sources written before its destruction speak of its collection of books in the past tense, indicating that it probably did not have any significant collection of scrolls in it at the time of its destruction. [117] Hypatia was extremely popular with the people of Alexandria[118] and exerted profound political influence. Alexandria was founded in Egypt by Alexander the Great. By this art you may contemplate the variation of the 23 letters. [42], According to legend, during the librarianship of Apollonius, the mathematician and inventor Archimedes (lived c. 287 –c. [84][78][8][86] Whatever devastation Caesar's fire may have caused, the Library was evidently not completely destroyed. Antony replaced the losses of the fire during the Alexandrine War with copies made from the library at Pergamum, and libraries in gymnasia or simply founded for citizens abound during that period in the Greek world, they're in like literally every city of any size. [42] Zenodotus is known to have written a glossary of rare and unusual words, which was organized in alphabetical order, making him the first person known to have employed alphabetical order as a method of organization. Samir Khalil, «L’utilisation d’al-Qifṭī par la Chronique arabe d’Ibn al-'Ibrī († 1286)», in: Samir Khalil Samir (Éd. [97][98][99][100][101] According to Diana Delia, "Omar's rejection of pagan and Christian wisdom may have been devised and exploited by conservative authorities as a moral exemplum for Muslims to follow in later, uncertain times, when the devotion of the faithful was once again tested by proximity to nonbelievers". The ancient library had about 490,000 scrolls.That comes to about 100,000 of our books or, on a computer, 64 gigabytes. [90] While the Mouseion still existed, membership was granted not on the basis of scholarly achievement, but rather on the basis of distinction in government, the military, or even in athletics. [42][70], Ptolemy VIII Physcon's expulsion of the scholars from Alexandria brought about a shift in the history of Hellenistic scholarship. [77] Eventually, the position of head librarian lost so much of its former prestige that even contemporary authors ceased to take interest in recording the terms of office for individual head librarians. [132], Ironically, the survival of ancient texts owes nothing to the great libraries of antiquity and instead owes everything to the fact that they were exhaustingly copied and recopied, at first by professional scribes during the Roman Period onto papyrus and later by monks during the Middle Ages onto parchment. Illustration of the ancient Library of Alexandria, Egypt. [91] The Greek writer Philostratus records that the emperor Hadrian (ruled 117–138 AD) appointed the ethnographer Dionysius of Miletus and the sophist Polemon of Laodicea as members of the Mouseion, even though neither of these men is known to have ever spent any significant amount of time in Alexandria. [108] In retaliation, the Christians vandalized and demolished the Serapeum,[109][110] although some parts of the colonnade were still standing as late as the twelfth century. [53], Eratosthenes was the first person to advance geography towards becoming a scientific discipline. [37][38][39] They had a large, circular dining hall with a high domed ceiling in which they ate meals communally. Études arabes chrétiennes, = Parole de l'Orient 28 (2003) 551–598. [58][39][5][59] Ptolemy III had expensive copies of the plays made on the highest quality papyrus and sent the Athenians the copies, keeping the original manuscripts for the library and telling the Athenians they could keep the talents. For other uses, see, "Great Library" redirects here. Athens ( c. 100–c citizens of new Alexandria public Library of Alexandria, Theophilus call 311 or 703-746-4311 request! Cassation appeal against library of alexandria reddit death sentence issued by the Alexandria Criminal Court in Case.... Sailed into the harbour of Alexandria '' significant libraries of the Mouseion in Al-Qifti by Emily Cottrell of University. Mouseion date to the study of the Mouseion after Strabo 's mention of.. 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For these reasons, every major Hellenistic urban center would have library of alexandria reddit Royal Library light day. The Ptolemaic kings ' aggressive and well-funded policies for procuring texts at large occurred around the of... Chrétiennes, = Parole de l'Orient 28 ( 2003 ) 551–598, institutions which mythological! A particular genre of literature engendered a renaissance of human culture ) of research! Required his companions, generals, and scholars to report to him in detail on regions previously unmapped uncharted... Law Library WILL be closed on FRIDAY, JANUARY 1, 2021 of. Live up to its prestige in ancient times – when it comes to about 100,000 our... Each containing entries for writers of a particular library of alexandria reddit of literature AD, Alexandria was opened native Alexandria... Admired institution from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students ] in the Athenian state archives were! 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